Data Transaction

Use Cases

  • Certify authorship of a document by publishing its hash on the blockchain
  • Verify that a digital artwork is original
  • Provide data for smart contracts to work on. E.g. if an oracle publishes some data once in a while using a publicly known account, smart contracts can use that data in their logic.


Data inside a transaction is structured as key-value pairs. Keys are non-empty UTF-8 strings and are case sensitive. Each value has a data type associated with it. 4 data types are supported: boolean, integer, string, and byte array.

Binary format of a data transaction is as follows:

Field Size in Bytes Comment
type 1 == 12
version 1 == 1 at this time
sender's public key 32
number of data entries 2
key1 length 2 key1 byte size
key1 bytes ? UTF-8 encoded
value1 type 1 0 = integer
1 = boolean
2 = binary array
3 = string
value1 bytes ?
timestamp 8
fee 8
proofs ? currently only signature is supported

For values, a one byte type code is written first, indicating the value type. Then the value is encoded as follows:

Value Type Type Byte Encoding Total Size
integer 0 value as 8 bytes 9
boolean 1 0=false, 1=true 2
binary 2 size as 2 bytes + N value bytes N + 3
string 3 size as 2 bytes + N value bytes N + 3

Data transactions issued by a single account define this account's state in a cumulative fashion. E.g. once the following two transactions have been mined:

tx # key value
1 "smart"
2 "IQ" 130

the account state will be {"smart": true, "IQ": 130}, this is, the latter transaction can overwrite existing keys but not delete them. There is currently no planned way to clear the state of an account.

Smart Contract Interaction

The smart contract language has functions getInteger(), getBoolean(), getBinary(), and getString(). All these accept two parameters: address and key. They return Some(value) if successful, None if no value exists for the given key, and make contract fail if the value stored under the key has different type.

Internally, data entries are stored as DataType class:

sealed abstract case class DataType(innerType: REAL)
object DataType {
  object Boolean   extends DataType(BOOLEAN)
  object Long      extends DataType(LONG)
  object ByteArray extends DataType(BYTEVECTOR)
  object String    extends DataType(STRING)


Fee is proportional to transaction size. Minimal fee is 100,000 per kilobyte, rounded up.

Fee is payable in WAVES only.


POST /addresses/data signs and sends a data transaction. This endpoint requires API key. Sample input is as follows (binary arrays are Base64-encoded):

  "version" : 1,
  "sender": "3FjTpAg1VbmxSH39YWnfFukAUhxMqmKqTEZ",
  "data": [
    {"key": "int", "type": "integer", "value": 24},
    {"key": "bool", "type": "boolean", "value": true},
    {"key": "blob", "type": "binary", "value": "base64:BzWHaQU"}
    {"key": "My poem", "type": "string", "value": "Oh waves!"}
  "fee": 100000

GET /addresses/data/{address} returns complete data set defined for an address. Entries are sorted by keys in ascending order:

[ {
  "key" : "blob",
  "type" : "binary",
  "value" : "base64:BzWHaQU"
}, {
  "key" : "bool",
  "type" : "boolean",
  "value" : true
}, {
  "key" : "int",
  "type" : "integer",
  "value" : 24
}, {
  "key": "My poem",
  "type": "string",
  "value": "Oh waves!"
} ]

GET /addresses/data/{address}/{key} returns single data entry, or 404 if no data is defined for the given key. This method is faster than the one above if you only need one entry:

  "key" : "bool",
  "type" : "boolean",
  "value" : true

POST /transactions/sign signs a data transaction request (transaction type == 12). This endpoint requires API key.

POST /transactions/broadcast broadcasts a signed transaction (transaction type == 12)

GET /transactions/info, /transactions/address, /blocks/at etc – all support the new transaction. Here's what an output from /transactions/info looks like:

  "type" : 12,
  "id" : "CwHecsEjYemKR7wqRkgkZxGrb5UEfD8yvZpFF5wXm2Su",
  "sender" : "3FjTpAg1VbmxSH39YWnfFukAUhxMqmKqTEZ",
  "senderPublicKey" : "5AzfA9UfpWVYiwFwvdr77k6LWupSTGLb14b24oVdEpMM",
  "fee" : 100000,
  "timestamp" : 1520945679531,
  "proofs" : [ "4huvVwtbALH9W2RQSF5h1XG6PFYLA6nvcAEgv79nVLW7myCysWST6t4wsCqhLCSGoc5zeLxG6MEHpcnB6DPy3XWr" ],
  "data" : [ {
    "key" : "int",
    "type" : "integer",
    "value" : 24
  }, {
    "key" : "bool",
    "type" : "boolean",
    "value" : true
  }, {
    "key" : "blob",
    "type" : "binary",
    "value" : "base64:BzWHaQU"
  }, {
    "key" : "My poem",
    "type" : "string",
    "value" : "Oh waves!"
  } ],
  "version" : 1,
  "height" : 303

With all endpoints, byte arrays are Base64-encoded and prefixed with "base64:".


Keys must be between 1 and 100 characters long. A key can contain arbitrary Unicode code points including spaces and other non-printable symbols. Byte array and string values have a limit of 32k bytes.

Maximum number of entries in data transaction is 100.

Maximum size of a data transaction is 150 kilobytes.

A data transaction cannot contain multiple entries sharing the same key. Such a transaction would make little sense and would most likely indicate a user error, so it is prohibited.

Data transaction will go through feature activation routine as Feature 5.

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